Examples of Data Collection Methods — Following is a link to a chart of data collection methods that examines types of data collection, advantages and challenges. Research Methods — The following link describes compares qualitative and quantitative research methodology including a discussion of data collection and types of data.
Data Colection — Quantitative Research — This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. Quantitative Data This module describes quantitative data and examines common methods of data collection in quantitative studies.
Define quantitative data and its characteristics. Explain the difference between discrete and continuous data. List examples of quantitative data. Describe common methods of quantitative data collection. Common examples of quantitative data collection strategies may include: Quantitative data analysis for social scientists rev. From this perspective, bias and subjectivity are not inherently negative but they are unavoidable; as a result, it is best that they be articulated up-front in a manner that is clear and coherent for readers.
What qualitative study seeks to convey is why people have thoughts and feelings that might affect the way they behave.
Such study may occur in any number of contexts, but here, we focus on pharmacy practice and the way people behave with regard to medicines use e. As we suggested in our earlier article, 1 an important point about qualitative research is that there is no attempt to generalize the findings to a wider population.
The role of the researcher in qualitative research is to attempt to access the thoughts and feelings of study participants. This is not an easy task, as it involves asking people to talk about things that may be very personal to them. However the data are being collected, a primary responsibility of the researcher is to safeguard participants and their data.
Mechanisms for such safeguarding must be clearly articulated to participants and must be approved by a relevant research ethics review board before the research begins. Researchers and practitioners new to qualitative research should seek advice from an experienced qualitative researcher before embarking on their project.
Whatever philosophical standpoint the researcher is taking and whatever the data collection method e. In addition to the variety of study methodologies available, there are also different ways of making a record of what is said and done during an interview or focus group, such as taking handwritten notes or video-recording.
If the researcher is audio- or video-recording data collection, then the recordings must be transcribed verbatim before data analysis can begin. Field notes allow the researcher to maintain and comment upon impressions, environmental contexts, behaviours, and nonverbal cues that may not be adequately captured through the audio-recording; they are typically handwritten in a small notebook at the same time the interview takes place.
Field notes can provide important context to the interpretation of audio-taped data and can help remind the researcher of situational factors that may be important during data analysis. Such notes need not be formal, but they should be maintained and secured in a similar manner to audio tapes and transcripts, as they contain sensitive information and are relevant to the research. It is their voices that the researcher is trying to hear, so that they can be interpreted and reported on for others to read and learn from.
To illustrate this point, consider the anonymized transcript excerpt presented in Appendix 1 , which is taken from a research interview conducted by one of the authors J. We refer to this excerpt throughout the remainder of this paper to illustrate how data can be managed, analyzed, and presented. Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers. The first is the culture of the indigenous population of Canada and the place of this population in society, and the second is the social constructivist theory used in the constructivist grounded theory method.
With regard to the first standpoint, it can be surmised that, to have decided to conduct the research, the researchers must have felt that there was anecdotal evidence of differences in access to arthritis care for patients from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. With regard to the second standpoint, it can be surmised that the researchers used social constructivist theory because it assumes that behaviour is socially constructed; in other words, people do things because of the expectations of those in their personal world or in the wider society in which they live.
Thus, these 2 standpoints and there may have been others relevant to the research of Thurston and others 7 will have affected the way in which these researchers interpreted the experiences of the indigenous population participants and those providing their care. Another standpoint is feminist standpoint theory which, among other things, focuses on marginalized groups in society.
Such theories are helpful to researchers, as they enable us to think about things from a different perspective. Being aware of the standpoints you are taking in your own research is one of the foundations of qualitative work. It is important for the researcher to reflect upon and articulate his or her starting point for such analysis; for example, in the example, the coder could reflect upon her own experience as a female of a majority ethnocultural group who has lived within middle class and upper middle class settings.
This personal history therefore forms the filter through which the data will be examined. This filter does not diminish the quality or significance of the analysis, since every researcher has his or her own filters; however, by explicitly stating and acknowledging what these filters are, the researcher makes it easer for readers to contextualize the work.
For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. As mentioned above, transcribing is an arduous process, even for the most experienced transcribers, but it must be done to convert the spoken word to the written word to facilitate analysis.
For anyone new to conducting qualitative research, it is beneficial to transcribe at least one interview and one focus group. It is only by doing this that researchers realize how difficult the task is, and this realization affects their expectations when asking others to transcribe.
If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work. If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice.
Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team. Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back. Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved.
In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data. While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics.
While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sections , it is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying. For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say? Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say.
Why is there a need to be particular about how data is collected? Why does it have to be systematic, and not just done on the fly, using whatever makes the data gatherer comfortable? Why do you have to pick certain methodologies of data collection when you can simply be random with it? You may notice some methods falling under both categories, which means that they can be used in gathering both types of data.
Exploratory in nature, these methods are mainly concerned at gaining insights and understanding on underlying reasons and motivations, so they tend to dig deeper. Since they cannot be quantified, measurability becomes an issue. This lack of measurability leads to the preference for methods or tools that are largely unstructured or, in some cases, maybe structured but only to a very small, limited extent.
Generally, qualitative methods are time-consuming and expensive to conduct, and so researchers try to lower the costs incurred by decreasing the sample size or number of respondents. This is considered to be the most common data collection instrument for qualitative research, primarily because of its personal approach. The interviewer will collect data directly from the subject the interviewee , on a one-on-one and face-to-face interaction.
This is ideal for when data to be obtained must be highly personalized. The interview may be informal and unstructured — conversational, even — as if taking place between two casual to close friends. The questions asked are mostly unplanned and spontaneous, with the interviewer letting the flow of the interview dictate the next questions to be asked.
However, if the interviewer still wants the data to be standardized to a certain extent for easier analysis, he could conduct a semi-structured interview where he asks the same series of open-ended questions to all the respondents.
But if they let the subject choose her answer from a set of options, what just took place is a closed, structured and fixed-response interview. Focus groups method is basically an interview method, but done in a group discussion setting.
When the object of the data is behaviors and attitudes, particularly in social situations, and resources for one-on-one interviews are limited, using the focus group approach is highly recommended.
Ideally, the focus group should have at least 3 people and a moderator to around 10 to 13 people maximum, plus a moderator. Depending on the data being sought, the members of the group should have something in common. For example, a researcher conducting a study on the recovery of married mothers from alcoholism will choose women who are 1 married, 2 have kids, and 3 recovering alcoholics.
Other parameters such as the age, employment status, and income bracketdo not have to be similar across the members of the focus group. The topic that data will be collected about will be presented to the group, and the moderator will open the floor for a debate. This method involves the use of previously existing and reliable documents and other sources of information as a source of data to be used in a new research or investigation.
This is likened to how the data collector will go to a library and go over the books and other references for information relevant to what he is currently researching on. In this method, the researcher takes a participatory stance, immersing himself in the setting where his respondents are, and generally taking a look at everything, while taking down notes.
Aside from note-taking, other documentation methods may be used, such as video and audio recording, photography, and the use of tangible items such as artifacts, mementoes, and other tools. This is a research or data collection method that is performed repeatedly, on the same data sources, over an extended period of time. It is an observational research method that could even cover a span of years and, in some cases, even decades. The goal is to find correlations through an empirical or observational study of subjects with a common trait or characteristic.
The study aimed to gather data on the characteristics of gifted children — and how they grow and develop — over their lifetime. Terman started in , and it extended over the lifespan of the subjects, more than 1, boys and girls aged 3 to 19 years old, and with IQs higher than However, the strength of a case study as a data collection method is attributed to how it utilizes other data collection methods, and captures more variables than when a single methodology is used.
In analyzing the case study, the researcher may employ other methods such as interviewing, floating questionnaires, or conducting group discussions in order to gather data. Data can be readily quantified and generated into numerical form, which will then be converted and processed into useful information mathematically.
The result is often in the form of statistics that is meaningful and, therefore, useful. Unlike qualitative methods, these quantitative techniques usually make use of larger sample sizes because its measurable nature makes that possible and easier.
Unlike the open-ended questions asked in qualitative questionnaires, quantitative paper surveys pose closed questions, with the answer options provided. The respondents will only have to choose their answer among the choices provided on the questionnaire. Personal one-on-one interviews may also be used for gathering quantitative data.
For example, a quantitative data collection methodology such as a sample survey of high school students who participated in a special science enrichment program can yield data obtained through qualitative research to be more trustworthy and informative. A particular case in point is the use of traditional test results.
Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. The Quantitative data collection Regardless of the kinds of data involved,data collection in a qualitative study takes a great deal of godliterature.tk researcher needs to.
Quantitative data collection may include ANY method that will result in numerical values. Common examples of quantitative data collection strategies may include: Data Colection – Quantitative Research – This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data. Overview of Qualitative And Quantitative Data Collection Methods Much of the workings of the world today are controlled and powered by information, giving credence to that famous quote, “information is power”.
Quantitative research can be described as ‘entailing the collection of numerical data and exhibiting the view of relationship between theory and research as deductive, a predilection for natural science approach, and as having an objectivist conception of social reality’. In other words, quantitative studies mainly examine relationships. Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering.