Cite This For Me Terms of service. Chrome Add-on Word Add-on Add-ons. Harvard Referencing Harvard Referencing. Always check for grammar error before handing over your paper. Glossary of Selected Terms.
Brief summary of or your personal thoughts on a source. Can be added to the end of a citation. The date month, day, year a work was published online. Not always shown on a webpage.
The city, state, or country of the publisher. Depending on the style, you may or may not need this information. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.
Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture.
The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work.
The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.
When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.
Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp. Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp.
Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article.
The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.
The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts.
The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide. The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.
Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet. When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http: A format for referencing web pages is given below.
Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:. Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.
If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks.
The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency. Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing.
Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same. Footnote or endnote markers , usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.
Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.
Dissertation – A document submitted to earn an advanced degree, such as a doctorate, at a university. Citing a thesis or dissertation from a database Structure: Last, F.M. (Date published). Title (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).
A full template and example to help you write a citation for a Dissertation in the Harvard style. Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles.
Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. ) Thesis/Dissertation – Institutional Database (i.e. University website) For U.S. thesis do . 3) CIIS citation formats – APA, MLA, Chicago, AAA 1) Are dissertations published or unpublished – and how can I tell the difference? The majority of dissertations done at institutions in the United States and Canada – including CIIS – and some dissertations from institutions in other countries are published through ProQuest/UMI.
Automatically cite a Dissertation in APA, Chicago, Harvard, or MLA style format. Instant and free! Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles. Author Surname of thesis, Initial(s) Year of submission, 'Title of thesis', name of degree, Institution issuing degree, Location of institution. Example In-Text Citation.