Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. In sum, the research using the normative approach conducts why may be called quantitative research as the inferences from it are largely based on quantitative data. Moreover, objectivity is the primary guard so that the research may be replicated by others, if necessary. Qualitative research presents non-quantitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say.
Qualitative research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended. Small number of people are interviewed in depth and or a relatively small number of focus groups are conducted.
Qualitative research can be further classified in the following type. A culture is the shared attributes, values, norms, practices, language, and material things of a group of people. In addition to the above, we also have the descriptive research. Fundamental research, of which this is based on establishing various theories.
From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. Research Questions and Hypothesis. This type of research is often used in science or medicine. Mixed methods combine qualitative and quantitative research. This type of methodology uses several different measures that include both contextual understanding like interviews or observations along with facts or statistics. Using mixed methods can help the researcher investigate a topic on multiple levels, gaining different views and a comprehensive look at the subject.
A mixed methodology meshes more than one philosophical perspective, allowing for the integration of different theories and ideas. Within each major methodology are various designs. These provide a framework or philosophy for the study, and are different than the actual methods used. For example, a case study design focuses on exploring and describing a specific instance, person or group. A researcher may use observations, interviews or self-reports from the subject to create a complete picture.
This picture, or case, provides a detailed example of a phenomenon that can then be generalized to a similar population. Based in Pittsburgh, Erica Loop has been writing education, child development and parenting articles since The Household Survey and Census ask closed questions, and often market researchers who stop you in the street do too.
The problem with closed questions is that they limit the response the interviewee can give and do not enable them to think deeply or test their real feelings or values. This would give you a very good idea of the variety of ideas and feelings people have, it would enable them to think and talk for longer and so show their feelings and views more fully.
But it is very difficult to quantify these results. You will find that you will need to read all the comments through and to categorise them after you have received them, or merely report them in their diversity and make general statements, or pick out particular comments if they seem to fit your purpose.
If you decide to use interviews:. Questionnaires often seem a logical and easy option as a way of collecting information from people. They are actually rather difficult to design and because of the frequency of their use in all contexts in the modern world, the response rate is nearly always going to be a problem low unless you have ways of making people complete them and hand them in on the spot and this of course limits your sample, how long the questionnaire can be and the kinds of questions asked.
As with interviews, you can decide to use closed or open questions, and can also offer respondents multiple choice questions from which to choose the statement which most nearly describes their response to a statement or item.
Their layout is an art form in itself because in poorly laid out questionnaires respondents tend, for example, to repeat their ticking of boxes in the same pattern. If given a choice of response on a scale , they will usually opt for the middle point, and often tend to miss out subsections to questions. You need to take expert advice in setting up a questionnaire, ensure that all the information about the respondents which you need is included and filled in, and ensure that you actually get them returned.
Expecting people to pay to return postal questionnaires is sheer folly, and drawing up a really lengthy questionnaire will also inhibit response rates. You will need to ensure that questions are clear, and that you have reliable ways of collecting and managing the data.
Setting up a questionnaire that can be read by an optical mark reader is an excellent idea if you wish to collect large numbers of responses and analyse them statistically rather than reading each questionnaire and entering data manually.
You would find it useful to consult the range of full and excellent research books available. These will deal in much greater depth with the reasons for, processes of holding, and processes of analysing data from the variety of research methods available to you.
Types of research methods can be classified into several categories according to the nature and purpose of the study and other attributes. In methodology chapter of your dissertation, you are expected to specify and discuss the type of your research according to the following classifications.
Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research, the knowledge it creates, the user group, the research problem it investigates etc.
Observational research methods, such as the case study, are probably the furthest removed from the established scientific method. This type is looked down upon, by many scientists, as ‘quasi-experimental’ research, although this is usually an unfair criticism. Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement. Before beginning any research project, you must decide which methodology to use. This will guide your study, help you to choose a way to collect data and aid in your analysis. Researchers use three primary methodology types: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods.
Types of Research Methods Adapted from Edvantia SBR Rating for Technical Assistance Programs and Services form () and Carter McNamara Overview of Methods to Collect Information handout. A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including experiments, survey research.