General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing. Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution. If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.
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Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments. Alphabetize the list according to the author's names. For an author who is a person, the entry should begin with the last name i.
If there are multiple authors for one source, alphabetize the entry according to the first author's last name. For organizational authors, alphabetize according to the first letter of the organization's title. Most word processing programs have an automatic alphabetizing feature, which can save time and effort and help prevent mistakes.
As a professional copywriter since , Lily Medina researches to expand her expertise in technology, parenting, education, health, fitness and writing. She has also taught high school and worked as a copy editor. Medina majored in political theory at Patrick Henry College.
Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Reference Books in a Bibliography. Facts on File and Statistical Abstracts provide brief bits of statistical information that can aid your research.
For example, if you're doing on a paper on airline safety since deregulation, it's a safe bet that you can find statistics on airline safety problems in one of these reference books. Other reference books abound e. Take time, at some point, to browse your library's shelves in the reference section to see how many different types of reference books exist and to consider how you may use them.
It will be time well spent. The Library of Congress provides an indexing system; most academic libraries index their books using Library of Congress subject headings. The Library of Congress publishes a Subject Heading Index listing all of the subject headings that they use. Why bother knowing this information? The Subject Heading Index is a good tool for you as a researcher. If you're not getting exactly the right books you need through your on-line subject search, check this index to find the appropriate subject heading to use.
If you are finding too much information, check this index to see at a glance all of the various headings and sub-headings for the subject. You can get an idea of how to narrow down and focus your subject simply by scanning these various headings and sub-headings.
Just note that these subject headings relate to books only. Magazine and journal indexes and abstracts will use their own subject headings but the Library of Congress headings can at least give you an idea of the types of headings to use.
The important thing to remember here is that, by the time a book is printed, the information is at least a couple of years old. So if you're doing research that requires very recent information, a newspaper, magazine, or journal is your best bet.
If currency is not an issue and it's not, in many cases , then a book's fuller treatment of a subject is a good choice. It's also useful to move from virtual cyberspace into actual, physical space and "real time" when you search for books.
That means that you should get yourself into the library. Sometimes a look through the stacks the shelves on which the books are located will turn up additional information that's relevant to your research question or working thesis.
The Internet provides access to a lot of information. The ESC Library provides access to a number of useful databases on a wide variety of topics. The Internet provides access to many on-line catalogs so you can review the types of books available in the field and carried by that particular library. The Internet also provides access to a few full-text electronic journals which means that you can read and print the article right from the screen. The Internet can link you up with individuals who might have expertise on the topic you are researching.
You can find these people by joining electronic discussion groups newsgroups or maillists. These forums are usually categorized by topic e. By posting a question to the group or maillist, you can obtain useful information from knowledgeable people willing to share their expertise. The one big problem with the Internet is that you sometimes need to sift.
You also have to be critical of what you find, since anyone can post and even change anything that's out there in cyberspace, and you won't necessarily know if someone answering your query is really an expert in the field. But if you persevere, and even if you just play around with it, the Internet can offer some gems of information in a quick, easy way.
Don't underestimate the power of interviewing knowledgeable people as part of your research. For example, if you're researching a topic in local history, consult the town historian or a local resident who experienced what you're researching.
People who have "been there" and "done that" can add a real richness to your research. Who better than a former Olympic athlete to provide information about the emotional effects of athletic competition?
You can consult knowledgeable people in print as well. If you find one or two names that keep popping up in your research if others consistently refer to these names and list works by these people in their bibliographies , then you should consult sources by these people, since it's likely that they are considered experts in the field which you are researching.
If your library doesn't carry the book or journal article that you need, you probably can get that source through interlibrary loan. The one catch is that it may take weeks' time to get the source from another library.
Starting your research early will assure that you have time to get the sources that you want to consult. One big tip for using interlibrary loan: So get in the habit of writing all of the information down as you compile your list of sources. For books, write down the author, title, publisher, place, and date of publication.
For articles, write down the article title, journal title, author, volume, date, span of page numbers, and the name, year, and page number of the reference source in which you found the article listed.
The library needs this information to order your source. One big tip for working with a reference librarian: The librarian will immediately be able to suggest a number of places to look if you tell him that your research question is "Why is smoking being banned in public places? Background Gathering sources is much more complex than it used to be. Your primary places for locating sources will be: The library Other computer sources CDRoms, etc. The library If you go to the library, you will find that the old card catalog, which only lists books, has been replaced by a computer in most libraries.
Is the book or article biased in a particular way? For instance, is the book or article written by a person who is a member of a particular religious group, or a particular environmental group, for example, which would "color" their interpretation?
Does the author agree or disagree with my thesis? Is the information presented accurately, to the best of your knowledge? Periodicals Magazines including Time or Newsweek are called periodicals as they are published periodically weekly, monthly, etc. Other computer resources CDROM, specialized databases etc Many libraries today, especially if they are larger libraries, have information available on CDROM or through what are called specialized databases.
Taking notes, paraphrasing, and quoting Taking notes is an important part of doing research. What do I take notes on? You should take notes on ideas and concepts that you think are important to include in your paper.
You also can include supporting examples that you think would be helpful to refer to. You should NOT write the words down exactly as they appear on the page, unless you are putting them in quotations. Otherwise, you might accidentally write them into your paper that way, and that would be plagiarism. Be sure to write down the page number that you are working from in case you want to refer back to it.
Click here to learn more about Taking Notes. Using quotes, or What if I want the exact words? If you come across a passage in your reading and it seems to you that the author's language is more accurate, more touching, or more informative than you could create, then you should write that sentence down exactly as you see it, with quotation marks around the sentence s.
You must be very careful to record the page number that this information is from, because you will need to include it in your paper. Quotes should not be used terribly often--if your paper is nothing more than a series of quotes strung together and yes, we have all written those!
Click here to see an example and to work more with using quotations. What about summarizing and paraphrasing? Summarizing and paraphrasing are similar to quoting in that you are recording the author's ideas.
However, when you are summarize or paraphrase, you record ideas as opposed to exact language; the language is yours. Once again, be sure to jot down the page number--you will need it later. Any time you summarize or paraphrase, you MUST acknowledge the source of your information. Not only is it a professional requirement, it is a way to avoid plagiarism. To see an example, read more specific information, and work with exercises, check out Summaries and Paraphrases.
Term Paper: Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction. As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference .
The reference page is a crucial element of your research paper; it helps you prevent plagiarism, and it proves you did your research. By providing publication information about the sources that helped you write your paper, the reference page both grants proper credit . Citing References in Scientific Research Papers. Compiled by Timothy T. Allen, revised This paper greatly expands upon a handout originally prepared by an unknown author for distribution to students in introductory earth science courses at Dartmouth College.
In any research paper, you will have used information from other sources, and it is essential to use in text citations to accredit other researchers. This article is a part of the guide. Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.