A research design is the set of methods and procedures used in collecting and analyzing measures of the variables specified in the research problem research. The design of a study defines the study type descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic and sub-type e.
A research design is a framework that has been created to find answers to research questions. There are many ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is artificial and other times different designs are combined. Nonetheless, the list below offers a number of useful distinctions between possible research designs.
A research design is an arrangement of conditions or collections. Sometimes a distinction is made between "fixed" and "flexible" designs. In some cases, these types coincide with quantitative and qualitative research designs respectively,  though this need not be the case.
In fixed designs, the design of the study is fixed before the main stage of data collection takes place. Fixed designs are normally theory-driven; otherwise, it is impossible to know in advance which variables need to be controlled and measured.
Often, these variables are measured quantitatively. Flexible designs allow for more freedom during the data collection process. One reason for using a flexible research design can be that the variable of interest is not quantitatively measurable, such as culture. In other cases, the theory might not be available before one starts the research.
The choice of how to group participants depends on the research hypothesis and on how the participants are sampled. In a typical experimental study, there will be at least one "experimental" condition e.
Confirmatory research tests a priori hypotheses — outcome predictions that are made before the measurement phase begins. Such a priori hypotheses are usually derived from a theory or the results of previous studies. The advantage of confirmatory research is that the result is more meaningful, in the sense that it is much harder to claim that a certain result is generalizable beyond the data set.
The reason for this is that in confirmatory research, one ideally strives to reduce the probability of falsely reporting a coincidental result as meaningful. Exploratory research, on the other hand, seeks to generate a posteriori hypotheses by examining a data-set and looking for potential relations between variables.
It is also possible to have an idea about a relation between variables but to lack knowledge of the direction and strength of the relation. If the researcher does not have any specific hypotheses beforehand, the study is exploratory with respect to the variables in question although it might be confirmatory for others. Depending on the research problem, you have to combine a number of design approaches to end up with the required outcome.
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This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Written by Muhammad Yousaf. What are the types of Research Design? There are four types of research designs which are: PhD Research Proposal for Scholarship. You may also like. Don't miss these related articles:. Check out our quiz-page with tests about: Back to Overview "Research Design". Search over articles on psychology, science, and experiments.
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Design types and sub-types. There are many ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is artificial and other times different designs are combined. Nonetheless, the list below offers a number of useful distinctions between possible research designs. A research design is an arrangement of conditions or collections.
This type of research design draws a conclusion by comparing subjects against a control group, in cases where the researcher has no control over the experiment. There are two general types of observational designs. In direct .
Research design is composed of methods and processes that are used to help gather data for scientific research. Due to the many different uses of research, there are many different types of research design. Basic Research Designs. Basic Research Designs. This module will introduce the basics of choosing an appropriate research design and the key factors that must be considered. Learning Objectives. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research methods. Types of Research Design.
To illustrate the different types of designs, consider one of each in design notation. The first design is a posttest-only randomized experiment. You can tell it's a randomized experiment because it has an R at the beginning of each line, indicating random assignment. The second design is a pre-post nonequivalent groups quasi-experiment. The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. Different types of research designs have .