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AP Biology (Mader), 11th Edition

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Writing a Lab Report Is Easy with Us
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Many times, writing a good written report of a scientific investigation is just. The lab says it test … [Read More. In most cases, your report should follow the format of a scientific journal.

Read a few APA journals e. What lab reports and scientific papers do. Formal laboratory reports are typically. While there may be some. Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem. Writing lab reports and scientific papers - commit your task to us and we will do our best for you choose the service, and our experienced writers. Scientific papers published in journals also include an abstract and a bibliography.

So writing lab reports is a good practice for. When in doubt about any aspect of how to write a practical report, there are two ultimate. Scientists and researchers read these journal articles, and use the. Writing Reports and Essays. Writing lab reports is part of learning to be a scientist, and provides you with experience in writing in a scientific style similar to that used in articles published in.

Your abstract should be a concise summary of your question, methods and results. That is, you must include an abstract, introduction. The purpose of a laboratory report or research report is to communicate to others the. Affordable and safe shopping for drugs. Than hiring an expert and let him work on all your scientific experiments? Adapted from Warren D. And laboratory report, a kindle? Bottles containing a standard laboratory yeast-based medium to feed the larvae.

Edmonde Jaspers used to teach a course on Scientific Reporting in the 2nd. Writing a report for mathematics can be a chore, especially if you aren't sure where to begin. In addition, a scientific paper generally.

Year American college students use an existing scientific journal article as a model to develop. Outline on a persuasive speech. Scientific writing can be in the form of a laboratory report, a thesis, a journal article, or some other written communication used to disseminate the results of.

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Its resources are intended to empower all learners without regard to institutional and national boundaries; cultural mores and religious beliefs; race, gender and sexual orientation. Full disclaimer on use. Here are some tips: So, when you refer to the table in the text, employ that number to indicate to your readers which table they can look at to clarify the material. Give your table a title. The title should be sufficiently descriptive to communicate its contents, but no so long that it becomes unwieldy.

The titles in the sample tables above are an appropriate length. Organize your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. Generally speaking, this means that you should design your table so that similar elements read down, rather than across. Consider what you wish your readers to compare, and place this information in the column up and down , rather than in the row across.

Often what is being compared is numerical data collected from the experiment, so take particular care to ensure that you have columns of numbers, not rows.

Here is an example of how significantly this decision has an impact on the readability of your table. Consider the table, which presents the data in rows arranged horizontally.

It is a bit difficult to comprehend the trends that the author presumably wants to demonstrate in this table. Compare this table, where the data is arranged vertically:. The second table demonstrates how placing similar elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading. In this instance, the similar elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials—not, as shown in the first table, the length and height measurements for each trial.

Ensure you include units of measurement in the tables. It may be helpful to imagine that you are going to add the numbers together and place them sequentially. Do not employ vertical lines as a component of the format for your table. This convention is adhered to because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines as consequently the tables are more expensive to print. Even thought-through tables can be useful ways of demonstrating trends in your results, figures i.

Lab report writers frequently employ graphic representations of the data they gathered to give their readers a literal picture of how the experiment proceeded. Recall the circumstances when you do not need to use a table: Under the same circumstances, you would likely forgo the figure as well, as the figure would not likely contribute an additional perspective. Scientists prefer not to waste their time, so they rarely respond well to redundancy.

If you are attempting to decide between using a table and creating a figure to represent your material, keep in mind the following a rule of thumb. The merits of a table are in its ability to provide large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its illustration of important facts that occurred during the experiment.

Naturally, a class at the undergrad level may require you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only for the reason to demonstrate that you are capable of doing so effectively. In this instance, do not stress about whether to employ figures or not—instead, focus on how best to accomplish your task.

However, the most common figure, particularly for undergraduates, is the line graph, so this is what we will focus on here. At the undergraduate level, it is often feasible to draw and label your graphs by hand, so long as the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale.

However, computer technology has made creating line graphs significantly easier. The majority of word-processing software has several functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for instance, a helpful tool to graph their results.

If you plan to pursue a career in the sciences, it would be a good idea to learn to use a similar program. Computers cannot, however, determine how your graph really works; you have to understand how to design your graph so that it will meet the expectations of your readers.

The following are some of these expectations: Keep it as simplistic as you are able. You may be inclined to indicate the complexity of the information you gathered by attempting to design a graph that accounts for that complexity. However, remember why you are using a graph: Do not force the reader to stare at the graph for an extended period of time to find the important line among the mass of other lines. Have three to five lines in a graph to achieve the best effect; if you have more data to demonstrate, utilize a set of graphs to present it, rather than attempting to force it all into a single figure.

Plot the independent variable on the horizontal x axis and the dependent variable on the vertical y axis. Keep in mind that the independent variable is component that you altered during the experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the independent variable. Placing the variables along their appropriate axes is really done because of convention, but given that your readers are used to viewing graphs in this way, it is better to not challenge the convention in your report.

Label each axis carefully, and be particularly diligent in including units of measure. You must ensure that your readers completely understand what your graph indicates. Number and title your graphs. Similar to tables, the title of the graph should be informative yet concise, and you should refer to your graph by number in the text.

The majority of editors of academic journals in the science field prefer that writers distinguish the lines in their graphs by attaching a symbol to them which is often a geometric shape triangle, square, etc.

For the most part, readers have difficulty distinguishing between dotted lines and dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you may wish to avoid this system. Because colors are costly to produce, generally editors do not wish to see different-colored lines within a graph; however, colors may be a great choice to utilize for your purposes, so long as you do not intend to submit your paper to Nature.

Use your discretion and try to use whichever technique most effectively dramatizes the results. Try to gather data at regular intervals, so the plot points on your chart are not too distanced from one another.

You cannot be sure of the line you should create between the plot points if these show up at the far corners of the graph; over the course of fifteen-minutes, the change may have occurred in the first or last thirty seconds of that period and if so your straight-line connection between the points is misleading. If you are concerned that you did not collect data at sufficiently regular times throughout your experiment, go ahead and connect the points with a straight line, but it may be advisable to address this in the Discussion section.

Make your graph big enough so that everything is legible and clearly demarcated, but not so big that it either overwhelms the rest of the Results section or provides a much greater scope than you require to illustrate your point. The lines in your graph should essentially fill the space created by the axes; if you see that your data is confined to the lower left portion of the graph, you should likely re-adjust your scale.

If you design a series of graphs, ensure that they are of the same dimensions and formatting, and this includes things such as captions, symbols, scale, and so forth. It is best to be highly consistent with your visuals to allow your readers to readily grasp the comparisons you are trying to get them to see. The discussion section is probably the most informal component of the report, as it is difficult to apply the same structure to every type of experiment.

To state this simply, in this section you inform your readers how they should view the Results you arrived at. If you have completed the Results component well, your readers should already recognize the trends in the data and have a relatively clear understanding of whether your hypothesis was supported.

Since the Results component can seem so self-explanatory, often students face difficulty in determining which material should be added in this final section.

Essentially, the Discussion is comprised of several parts, in no particular order, but generally moving from specific i. As a rule, in this section you will be required to: Draw connections between your findings and earlier work in the same area if this is possible. This statement is most often a great way to begin the Discussion, as you will not be able to speak about the larger scientific value of your study in an informed manner until you have grasped the specifics of this experiment.

You can start this component of the Discussion by explicitly identifying the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the variables you altered and those that you kept controlled.

Following this you can elaborate in a more transparent fashion why you believe your theory was or was not supported. For example, if you subjected solubility to differing temperatures, you might commence this component by noting that solubility rates increased in relation to those of temperature. Students often perceive labs as pragmatic tests of irrefutable scientific truths.

These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist should not claim possession of. Also, note that articulating whether the data supported your hypothesis or not includes issuing a claim that you must defend. Consequently, you must be able to demonstrate to your readers that this claim is supported by the evidence. Ensure that you are very explicit concerning the relationship between the evidence and your conclusions drawn from it. This is challenging for many writers because we infrequently justify conclusions in our normal lives.

For example, you must whisper to a friend at a party that another guest is drunk, and when your friends observes the person you referred to she might quickly agree. By contrast, in a scientific paper you are required to defend your statement more concretely by noting data such as slurred speech, awkward gait, and a lampshade being worn as a hat. Additionally, you must also demonstrate how according to previous studies these outward behaviors are consistent with being intoxicated, particularly if they appear in conjunction with one another.

To phrase this a different way, you must convey to your readers exactly how you moved from point A was your hypothesis supported? You need to consider these exceptions and divergences so that you are able to sufficiently qualify your conclusions. In a more philosophical sense, once you have ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you are no longer engaging in the scientific method.

Occasionally after you have performed a study or experiment, you become cognizant that some components of the methods you employed to test your hypothesis were flawed. In that case, it is acceptable to observe that if you had the opportunity to conduct your test again, you would potentially alter the design in this or that particular way to avoid such and such a problem.

What is paramount in making this approach work, however, is to be extremely precise in identifying the weakness in your experiments, and to articulate why and how you believe that it might have had an impact on your data, as well as how you might change your procedure to eliminate or limit the effects of that weakness.

These speculations include factor such as the temperature of the room, or that their lab partners potentially read the meters incorrectly, or equipment which could have been defective. For example, if your hypothesis addressed changes in solubility at different temperatures, then attempt to determine what you can rationally say about the process of solubility.

If you are an undergrad, the paper will probably be in some way related to the content you have been covering in class, so returning to theses resources may assist you in thinking more clearly about the process as a whole. This component of the Discussion section is another location where you need to ensure that you are not overreaching.

Be cautious before you embark on such stipulations, as they are often falsifiable. So far we have talked about how to demonstrate that you belong in a given community such as biologists or anthropologists by utilizing the writing conventions they are familiar with and accept. Another means of doing so is to attempt to locate a conversation occurring between members of that community, and utilizing your work to advance that conversation.

In a broader philosophical sense, scientists are unable to fully comprehend the full implications of their research unless they have a grasp of the context it which it was provoked and nourished. Particularly for undergraduates, on a more pragmatic level, connecting previous research to your own will make clear to your TA that you are cognizant of the larger picture. The Discussion section affords you the opportunity to set yourself apart from other students in the class who are not thinking beyond the rudimental aspects of the study.

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Techniques and strategies for writing lab reports and scientific papers for class projects.

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Writing Lab Reports and Scientific Papers. by Warren D. Dolphin of Iowa State University. Verbal communication is temporal and easily forgotten, but written reports exist for long periods and yield long-term benefits for the author and others.

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What this handout is about This handout provides a general guide to writing reports about scientific research you’ve performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we’ll also attempt to convey Continued. The lab report or the scientific paper is the vehicle of persuasion; when it is published, it is available to other scientists for review. If the results stand up to criticism, they.

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Writing a Lab Report Is Easy with Us As it was mentioned above, writing lab reports requires you to have all the information gathered in the laboratory neatly arranged, ordered and thoroughly explained. Checklist writing lab reports and scientific papers for Lab Reports & Scientific Papers Is the title concise and does it adequately describe the. Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem.